and N.C. our Gr-FET devices were tested in the range of 1 1 fM to 1 1 M with a limit of detection of 10 fM in the standard buffer. The fabricated devices are highly sensitive, specific, and capable of detecting low levels of S1-Ag. vs over a span of 6 weeks. 3.5. Detection of S1-Ag Using the Gr-FET Sensor in Real Time To investigate the potential of the Gr-FET sensor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 Ag, we evaluated the kinetic response at every step for various devices. The real-time switch in resistance was measured in the CC mode at zero bias was noticed due to the heterogeneous electron transfer between AbCAg conversation.53 A gradual drop in was observed with an increase in Ag concentration which saturates after 1 M. This effect has already been reported in FETs, which can be attributed to the switch in doping level due to the conversation of AgCAb at the reactive site on graphene and the solution interface that essentially changes the overall electrostatic potential (is the gate capacitance of Gr-FET.18,44 It is important to note that this large surface area of graphene prospects to more efficient sensing by providing a greater number of active sites for AgCAb conversation. For quantitative analysis of cIAP1 Ligand-Linker Conjugates 14 device response, the sensitivity of the device was evaluated by calculating the switch in channel resistance ((%) of 5.4 to 20.6% was obtained for SARS-CoV-2 Ag concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 1 M. However, no significant transmission, that is switch in was observed upon the addition of MERS-CoV. Open in a separate window Physique 5 The kinetic response of the Gr-FET device functionalized with S1-Ab at numerous concentrations of (a) SARS-CoV-2 Ag added, ranging from 1 fM to 1 1 M in 50 mM PB (pH 7.2) and (b) MERS-CoV Ag of various concentrations added (1 fM to 1 1 M) in PB. Ag, as depicted in Physique ?Figure55b, indicates the specificity and sensitivity of our S1-Ab functionalized Gr-FET to Spike S1 Ag. Moreover, negligible switch in on MERS-CoV Ag addition can be ascribed to the efficient Ab binding to the channel and blocking of nonspecific sites achieved by BSA. 4.?Conclusions From this study, it is concluded that we have developed a Gr-FET sensor, where SARS-CoV-2 S1-Ab was immobilized on the surface of graphene and can be used as a sensing cIAP1 Ligand-Linker Conjugates 14 element. The binding of Ag with graphene-labeled Ab resulted in the redistribution of local doping and switch in the graphene conductivity. The developed sensor was able to read the switch in resistance and further analyze the cIAP1 Ligand-Linker Conjugates 14 proportion of antigen with a RRAS2 detection limit of 10 fM. Furthermore, the devices have shown negligible cross-reactivity with MERS-CoV, which overall increases the specificity of the developed sensor. Thus, this sensor could be used as an alternative, cost-effective device for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, this developed Gr-FET sensor could potentially be miniaturized to develop a portable sensing platform for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 cIAP1 Ligand-Linker Conjugates 14 and can be adapted for personalized healthcare in the near future. Acknowledgments The authors would like to cIAP1 Ligand-Linker Conjugates 14 thank Dr. Jayant Hole for providing support with animal experimentation. S.G. is usually grateful for the research endowment under the Intensification of Research in High Priority Area (IRHPA) program from the Science and Engineering Research Table (SERB), New Delhi (grant number IPA/2020/000069). N.C. would like to acknowledge the Raman Post-Doc Program, an initiative by the Institution of Eminence (IoE) by the Government of India, at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. She.