and Bovine herpes virus 1 (IBR/IPV) . varieties em Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus /em (formerly em Chlamydia (C.) psittaci /em serotype 1) and em Cp. pecorum /em (formerly em C. pecorum /em ) are known to infect ruminants . It has also been reported that em Cp. psittaci /em may infect cattle [2-4]. In many sheep-producing countries em Cp. abortus /em is known to cause Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA) . The zoonotic potential of em Cp. abortu /em s is well known and poses a danger to primarily pregnant women, handling sheep and goats . Chlamydial illness in cattle has been associated with reproductive disorders including abortion, endometritis, repeat breeding, vaginitis, seminal vesiculitis, poor calves and perinatal mortality [7-11]. Moreover, symptoms such as pneumonia, conjunctivitis, enteritis, polyarthritis and encephalitis have been reported [12-14]. It has been suggested that both em Cp. abortus and Cp. pecorum /em are ubiquitous in cattle [10,15,16]. Reproductive disorders and infertility are major causes of culling in dairy herds. The diagnostic rate of abortions is usually below 35% [17,18]. In Sweden, 97% of all dairy herds are free of Bovine viral diarrhoea computer virus (BVDV)  and the prevalence of em Neospora (N.) caninum /em illness is definitely 2% . Furthermore, Sweden is definitely free from em Brucella Mibampator abortus /em , em Leptospira /em spp. and Bovine herpes virus 1 (IBR/IPV) . The prevalence of chlamydial infections and their effect on reproduction in Swedish cattle is definitely unclear and has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was consequently to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against em Chlamydophila /em spp., preferably em Cp. abortus /em and the event of chlamydial providers in Swedish dairy herds with a history of reproductive disorders. Methods Animals and samples Seventy dairy herds from different parts of Sweden that experienced reproductive disorders, mainly abortions, during January 2000 to December 2006 were included in this study. Herd sizes ranged from 19 to 215 cows and all herds were free of BVDV and em N. caninum /em . As part of the analysis investigations, blood samples were collected by local veterinarians and sent by mail to the laboratory. Samples were collected from 4 to 15 cows (average 7.5, median 6), 2 years of age from each herd, except in two herds where all cows, 32 and 34, respectively, were bled. In almost all herds (61/70) samples from both cows with medical signs (instances) and cows with Mibampator normal pregnancies and parturitions (settings) were taken, and in the additional nine herds only cows with medical signs were sampled. A total of 525 animals were blood sampled: 286 instances and 239 settings. Of the 286 instances, 179 experienced aborted (two-thirds during the last trimester). They were bled on the same day time or up to 10 weeks after abortion (mostly within the 1st 3 months after abortion). The additional instances had premature parturition or parturition at full term resulting in death, stillbirth or poor neonate, repeat breeding or vaginitis. The blood samples were centrifuged at 1000 em g /em for 10 minutes and sera collected and stored at -20C until analysis. Vaginal swabs (Cytobrush Plus, Medscand Medical Abdominal), milk samples, placentas and organs from aborted foetuses were also collected from some of the herds. In total 107 specimens were submitted: 43 vaginal swabs (from 31 instances and 12 settings in Mibampator 12 herds), 54 milk samples (37 instances and 17 settings, in 10 herds), organs from 5 aborted foetuses in 3 herds and 5 placentas from abortions in 5 herds. Samples were stored at -70C prior to preparation and analysis. Detection of antibodies to em Chlamydophila abortus /em Two commercially available em Cp. abortus /em antibody detection kits were used. The Pourquier ELISA em Chlamydophila abortus /em serum verification test (Institut Pourquier) uses a recombinant fragment of an 80C90 kDa polymorphic outer membrane protein as antigen. The kit was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions, where S/P% ideals equal or more than 100 are considered as positive for cattle. The CHEKIT-Chlamydia enzyme immunoassay (Dr. Bommeli Rabbit polyclonal to POLR2A AG-Idexx) is based on an inactivated antigen originally isolated from a case of.